In factories that use ultra-high pressure (22.9 kV or higher), production equipment is down due to an instantaneous voltage drop (Sag or Dip), causing great damage to the factory.
There were several measures to prevent this. A comprehensive summary of the global and domestic trends for each generation is as follows.
First generation measures.
- When the resistance standard for instantaneous voltage drop was not established, most of them used UPS, which is a storage battery storage method, and measures for instantaneous voltage drop were also established at the same time. Factory construction costs and facility operation costs have risen significantly.
Second generation measures.
- Although the International Standards Organization announced its own standards for bird resistance to equipment such as SEMI F47, IEC61000-4-11, and IEC61000-4-34, it was not spread worldwide as it lacked understanding on an unfamiliar basis, emphasized only the increase in equipment introduction price and did not consider the overall factory operating cost. However, semiconductor equipment manufacturers in the U.S. and Europe have been steadily applying it.
Third generation measures.
- It was mounted and applied inside the equipment as an instantaneous power outage compensation device for 1 second using a capacitor. It was not a perfect countermeasure, but a partial countermeasure for each equipment, and it was of considerable help to the operation of the factory, but the cost of additional construction increased.
The 4th generation countermeasures.
- As a large instantaneous voltage drop compensation device, measures were taken for each line and plant. Although it contributed greatly to the operation of the factory, the cost of operating and maintaining the factory increased significantly, raising production costs.
The 5th generation countermeasure.
- In order to reduce production costs, equipment was ordered with SEMIF47 standards, etc., and the factory was operated based on the Sag resistance standard of the equipment itself. Although the cost of introducing equipment has risen slightly, the overall operating cost of the factory has been greatly reduced and the overall power outage of the factory can be avoided.
The order of the Sag (instantaneous voltage drop) countermeasures proposed by the re-new information is as follows.
▣ Step 1:
The electrical quality meter is measured online at all times to establish an electrical quality database. The standard for measuring the quality of electricity...
Products such as PQube3 that have obtained IEC61000-4-30 Class A. Ed.3 certification are used. The amount of damage to production in the event of each Saeg occurs is counted.
[IEC61000-4-30 Class A Ed.3 Measurement Screen]
[ITIC curve report]
- EN50160 Electrical Quality Evaluation Report function is used to manage electricity quality in the factory at all times online as shown in the figure below.
▣ Step 2:
Based on the measured electrical quality database, the target level of the Saeg countermeasure standard is set. For example, we decide whether to set the target standard for our factory's new countermeasures as SEMIF47, IEC61000-4-11, ITIC/CBEMA, or take countermeasures with a 1-second power outage. At this time, when Saeg damage occurs, the ROI is calculated by comparing the total production damage with the total investment cost when the Saeg countermeasure target standard is applied, and if profits are generated, the Saeg countermeasure investment is determined.
[SAG's countermeasure standard graph]
▣ Step 3: implement new measures for each equipment.
1. Saeg's countermeasures against rotating machinery.
○ Phenomenon 1:
In M/C, when a lag occurs, chattering occurs, and an instantaneous power outage occurs at the load end. Then, the load facility is down, and the upper circuit breaker may trip due to the occurrence of an inrush current.
In addition, the inverter where the M/C is installed may be stopped due to an instantaneous power outage or overcurrent.
○ Countermeasure 1:
A coil lock is installed on the M/C driving power to prevent chattering.
○ Coillock Sag operation comparison test: https://youtu.be/y2x5WUXS1YM
2. Saeg measures for production facilities.
○ Phenomenon 2:
A phenomenon in which the production facility goes down when a lag occurs in the production facility excluding rotating machinery such as a motor.
○ Countermeasure 2:
Establishing a new countermeasure for the entire production facility with DVR.
▣ Level 4.
○ Countermeasure 3: When ordering the introduction of production facilities, the equipment is ordered according to the Sag resistance standard as follows.
Semiconductor equipment: Order based on SEMIF47.
Network communication equipment: Order based on ITIC or CBEMA.
Home appliances for export to Europe: Orders based on IEC61000-4-11
○ Countermeasure 4: Establish UPS battery system.
Computerized data server, PLC, DCS, etc.
▣ General conclusion on countermeasures:
The final purpose of the factory will be how much production costs will be reduced to make maximum profits. And the key is whether production facilities can be optimally operated while preventing power outages across the factory. In the end, after going through all trials and errors, we will find the best way, and the end point will be the above fourth stage "Measure 3" and "Measure 4." The reason is that now and in the future, factories around the world will have to compete for production costs.